Almost everyone who owns a dog thinks about breeding it at least
once. Raising a litter sounds easy and fun but having puppies isn't all it's cracked
up to be. Breeding dogs involves much more work and responsibility than most people are
prepared to undertake. Before you breed your dog, there are some important things to
Will all your puppies find good, permanent homes?
According to the Humane Society of the United States and the government Census Bureau
2,000 puppies and 450 humans are born every hour in our country. Right from the start,
only 1 out of 4 puppies has a chance at a home. Finding a permanent home is even more
unlikely - only 1 out of 10 dogs will stay with its original buyer for its whole life.
Five out of 10 will change owners before they're a year old. The remainder of these dogs
will end up in animal shelters, abandoned and unwanted. Even if your dog is an expensive
purebred, your puppies are subject to the same statistics. At least 3 MILLION purebred
dogs will be killed in animal shelters this year alone because there just aren't enough
homes for all of them. There are so many unwanted pets that cities and counties all over
the country are considering passing laws that will ban all breeding!
Your responsibilities as a breeder:
As a breeder, you're personally responsible for each and every puppy for the rest of its
life. Your responsibility doesn't end with selling the puppy - it only starts there! It
will be up to you to know where those puppies are six months, a year, five years from now
and whether or not they're being taken care of. It will be up to you to keep any unsold
puppies or to take back puppies you've sold after they're grown if their owners can't keep
them anymore. Since only 1 out of 10 puppies stays with its original buyer for life, you
can expect to have to take back most of your litter sooner or
later! The time to prepare for this is now - before you bring puppies into the world, not
after. If you're offering your dog for stud service, you have as much responsibility for
the welfare of his puppies as do the owners of the bitches bred to him. As a
breeder, you have the responsibility of controlling the reproductive future of the puppies
you sell. It might seem like having just one litter doesn't add much to pet overpopulation
but, if your dog or bitch produces just one litter of four pups who in turn each produce
just one litter themselves and so forth, in only 7 years your dog will have 4,000
descendants! "Just one litter" has serious consequences! You'll need to learn
how to write and enforce a contract requiring the new owners to spay or neuter their
You have a responsibility to your puppies and their buyers to produce the healthiest and
most mentally sound dogs possible. All breeds have genetic health and temperament problems
that can be passed on to their puppies. It takes experience and knowledge to learn how to
recognize these problems. Many inherited defects are"hidden" - although your dog
may not seem to have a problem, it could be genetically programmed to pass trouble along
to its pups. Without expensive medical testing and a thorough understanding of genetics
and pedigrees, you could easily produce puppies that will be a heartache to their owners
and a financial burden to you. Reputable breeders check their adult stock for evidence of
hip and elbow dysplasia, eye diseases, thyroid and hormone trouble, skin problems and
allergies, bleeding disorders and other problems before even thinking of breeding.
As a breeder, you must be prepared to guarantee your puppies against inherited health
problems that may not appear until adulthood. This can mean refunding money or replacing a
dog years later. Many states are now passing "puppy lemon laws" that would
require a breeder to refund up to three times the purchase price of a defective puppy.
Temperament is also subject to guarantees. You could be sued if a dog you produce bites
someone! You need to be there to give advice on training, behavioral and medical problems.
You're the "on-line" support for your puppies' buyers for the next 10-15 years!
Having a litter is expensive
Raising a litter involves a considerable investment in time and money - money that you
aren't likely to get back in profit. By the time your bitch is old enough to have puppies,
you'll have more than $1000 invested in her purchase price, food and up keep, vaccinations
and the medical tests and certification to prove her suitability for breeding. In order to
produce quality puppies,
you'll need to use a stud dog that's as good or better than she is. Good stud dogs require
a hefty fee. Most professional breeders won't be interested in taking a puppy in exchange
nor are they interested in breeding to just any bitch.
There'll be pre-whelping exams and x-rays, post-whelping exams and shots, dewclaw removal
and puppy shots (two sets for each pup before they're sold), worming medication, extra
food for dam and pups, equipment like whelping boxes, heating pads, puppy playpens,
crates, etc. Problem pregnancies are common. A Cesarian section can cost over $500.00!
You'll be taking time off work to help whelp the litter and make sure all is well the
first few days, especially if this is your bitch's first litter. Dogs don't always
know what to do and can accidentally kill their puppies. A problem during whelping can
cost your bitch her life if you're not there to tend her. You can depend on a 25%
mortality rate for newborn puppies no matter how well you care for them. Birth defects
like cleft palettes are also common. Then there will be advertising costs to help sell
your puppies. Depending on your breed and part of the country, it can take up to six
months to find proper homes for your entire litter. Even breeders of top quality show dogs
rarely break even on their expenses.
AKC registration requirements
If you plan to register your litter with the AKC, you need to become familiar with their
rules and record keeping requirements. You should be aware that they have the right to
inspect your premises and breeding records at any time. If your record keeping doesn't
meet their standards, they can refuse to register your puppies, impose a large fine and
suspend you from registration
privileges for life.
Before going any further, think hard about your reasons for wanting to breed a litter.
Here are some of the most common ones:
"Nature intended for dogs to have puppies."
Nature doesn't control our pets' reproductive
careers any more - we do. Nature's way is very different than ours. Nature never
intends for all animals to reproduce. In the wild, nature sees to it that only the
strongest, fittest and smartest animals survive long enough to have babies. Nature only
allows females to conceive when the food supply and environment is suitable to assure a
good future. We humans allow our animals to reproduce anytime, no
matter if there is a future for them or not.
"We're doing it for the kids."
Seeing the miracle of birth isn't all it's cracked up to be. It's messy,
bloody and usually happens in the middle of the night. It's painful for the bitch and her
screaming may be more than you or the kids can stand. There are videos and books available
to show children what birth is like without the responsibility and expense of raising
puppies. Seeing the birth of a mummified fetus, or a grotesquely malformed puppy and even
possibly the death of their beloved pet bitch is not a positive experience for children.
"We want another dog just like this one."
Your puppies have at least a 50-50 chance of taking after the other parent instead! Your
dog is unique, special. The laws of heredity make it impossible for any two to be exactly
alike. Many of the qualities of personality that make your dog so adorable to you are
developed, not inherited.
"We want to keep a puppy."
It's far cheaper and easier to buy a new puppy than to breed one yourself!
"All our friends want one."
Almost everyone who saw your dog as a pup will tell you they want one "someday".
That someday is seldom when your puppies are ready for their new homes! You'll be amazed
at how many people suddenly don't have time for a pup right now or aren't willing to pay
your price. Don't count on vague promises!
Placing puppies in good homes is easier said than done. Not everyone should own a dog and
bad owners aren't always easy to sort from the good ones. You have to be a good judge of
character and willing to spend time getting to know people before you sell them a puppy.
Do they have the experience to raise and train your puppy and if not, are you willing to
teach them? Is this the BEST possible home for this particular puppy? Do you know how to
evaluate puppy potential to match the right dog with the right person? Will you be willing
to hang on to each pup until just the right home comes along?
"She needs to experience sex"...or..."it'll settle him down."
No - on both counts. Sex in animals is governed by hormones. There is no love, emotion or
thinking involved. A bitch only "thinks" about sex when she's in season. The
experience is forgotten once her season is over. Males only think about sex when they're
near a bitch in season. Breeding won't settle your dog down at all - it will make your
male dog worse! He'll become
more territorial and aggressive toward other dogs, may lose his house manners, and will
become uncontrollable if there is a breedable bitch in the neighborhood. If they've never
had it, they don't miss it! "Settling" a dog down, male or female, is a matter
of maturity and training, not sex!
There is no truth to the old wives' tale that bitches need to have a litter before
spaying. Veterinarians who still give that advice are behind the times! Research shows
that even baby puppies may be spayed or neutered with no ill effects. Spaying a bitch
before her first heat cycle eliminates the risk of breast cancer and life-threatening
uterine infections. Neutering a male dog won't make him a wimp! In fact, neutering will
make him a better,
more trainable pet by allowing him to channel what used to be sexual energy into other
"We want to get back our investment in our dog."
As was pointed out earlier, you are not likely to make a profit from raising puppies. In
fact, raising a litter will probably cost more than you ever imagined! You probably bought
your dog to provide companionship and pleasure. Even if you paid as much as $1000 for it,
that's only an "investment" of $100 a year if your dog lives for 10 years - less
than $2 a week. Isn't the companionship, pleasure, love and loyalty your dog gives you
worth that much?
If you sincerely feel that you have exceptionally good reasons for breeding your dog and
can live up to the great responsibility involved, your work is just beginning!
You'll need an education in all canine subjects, medical concerns, anatomy and structure,
behavior, training and even some psychology for working with the owners of your new
puppies. Go to dog shows where you can see and touch other examples of your
breed and learn what makes them better than average.
One of the most important parts of your education is learning what the "breed
standard" means. The Chinese Shar-Pei club of America has a written and
illustrated breed standard of perfection for Shar-Pei It describes and illustrates what
that breed should look, move and act like. This can be obtained for no charge from the
Chinese Shar-Pei club of America. Serious breeders constantly measure, test and
compare against this standard before deciding whether their chosen dog is good enough to
breed. They show their dogs in order to compare them with others of high quality. Breed
standards aren't easily understood in one reading. It takes study and exposure to hundreds
of dogs before you can really see why certain characteristics are important and whether or
not your dog has them to such a degree that breeding it would improve the overall quality
of the entire breed. That's the real goal of serious dog breeding and the ONLY reason to
breed any dog - to produce animals that are exceptional in appearance, health, temperament
It can take years to gain this kind of knowledge and along the way, you might learn that
the dog you have is a fine pet, but not good breeding stock. If so, you're in good
company. Some of today's most successful breeders began by finding out the same thing.
They discovered that getting a dog of suitable quality meant a serious financial
commitment and a lifetime of dedication to do their very best even though there would be
no real monetary reward for their effort.
Breeding dogs today is a serious matter. Before going any further, visit your local pound
or animal shelter to see what happens to the dogs that were raised by people who thought
it would be "fun" to have a litter. Better yet, volunteer to work at the shelter
a day a week for a month. "The miracle of death" by euthanasia is just as
educational as the "miracle of birth"! If you intend to breed your dog, then you
should be fully aware of what the consequences may be.
Will it be worth it? Most of the time, the answer is no. The decision NOT to breed your
pet is one of the most intelligent, educated decisions you can make.
For more information on your breed, registration requirements, responsible ownership or to
find the dog clubs closest to you, call:
The American Kennel Club
51 Madison Avenue
New York, NY 10010
(212) 696-8200 8:30 a.m.- 4:15 pm
Eastern time, Monday thru Friday
Related Reading (General)
My Puppy is Born.............................Barbara Miller
(excellent color pictorial for children)
The Art of Raising a Puppy...................Monks of New Skete
Canine Reproduction - A Breeder's Guide......Phyllis Holst DVM
Purebred Dogs - American Kennel Gazette......AKC (address above-monthly magazine for
serious dog breeders....$28 year)
AKC Book of Dog Care & Training.........AKC
AKC Breed Standard Videos............AKC
The New Art of Breeding Better Dogs..........Kyle Onstott
Breeding Better Dogs.........................Dr Carmelo Battaglia
Medical & Genetic Aspects of Purebred Dogs...Clark/Stainer
The Dog Crisis..study of pet overpopulation..Iris Nowell